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Migrating to TanStack Query v5

Breaking Changes

v5 is a major version, so there are some breaking changes to be aware of:

Supports a single signature, one object

useQuery and friends used to have many overloads in TypeScript - different ways how the function can be invoked. Not only this was tough to maintain, type wise, it also required a runtime check to see which type the first and the second parameter, to correctly create options.

now we only support the object format.

diff
- useQuery(key, fn, options)
+ useQuery({ queryKey, queryFn, ...options })
- useInfiniteQuery(key, fn, options)
+ useInfiniteQuery({ queryKey, queryFn, ...options })
- useMutation(fn, options)
+ useMutation({ mutationFn, ...options })
- useIsFetching(key, filters)
+ useIsFetching({ queryKey, ...filters })
- useIsMutating(key, filters)
+ useIsMutating({ mutationKey, ...filters })
diff
- queryClient.isFetching(key, filters)
+ queryClient.isFetching({ queryKey, ...filters })
- queryClient.ensureQueryData(key, filters)
+ queryClient.ensureQueryData({ queryKey, ...filters })
- queryClient.getQueriesData(key, filters)
+ queryClient.getQueriesData({ queryKey, ...filters })
- queryClient.setQueriesData(key, updater, filters, options)
+ queryClient.setQueriesData({ queryKey, ...filters }, updater, options)
- queryClient.removeQueries(key, filters)
+ queryClient.removeQueries({ queryKey, ...filters })
- queryClient.resetQueries(key, filters, options)
+ queryClient.resetQueries({ queryKey, ...filters }, options)
- queryClient.cancelQueries(key, filters, options)
+ queryClient.cancelQueries({ queryKey, ...filters }, options)
- queryClient.invalidateQueries(key, filters, options)
+ queryClient.invalidateQueries({ queryKey, ...filters }, options)
- queryClient.refetchQueries(key, filters, options)
+ queryClient.refetchQueries({ queryKey, ...filters }, options)
- queryClient.fetchQuery(key, fn, options)
+ queryClient.fetchQuery({ queryKey, queryFn, ...options })
- queryClient.prefetchQuery(key, fn, options)
+ queryClient.prefetchQuery({ queryKey, queryFn, ...options })
- queryClient.fetchInfiniteQuery(key, fn, options)
+ queryClient.fetchInfiniteQuery({ queryKey, queryFn, ...options })
- queryClient.prefetchInfiniteQuery(key, fn, options)
+ queryClient.prefetchInfiniteQuery({ queryKey, queryFn, ...options })
diff
- queryCache.find(key, filters)
+ queryCache.find({ queryKey, ...filters })
- queryCache.findAll(key, filters)
+ queryCache.findAll({ queryKey, ...filters })

queryClient.getQueryData now accepts queryKey only as an Argument

queryClient.getQueryData argument is changed to accept only a queryKey

diff
- queryClient.getQueryData(queryKey, filters)
+ queryClient.getQueryData(queryKey)

queryClient.getQueryState now accepts queryKey only as an Argument

queryClient.getQueryState argument is changed to accept only a queryKey

diff
- queryClient.getQueryState(queryKey, filters)
+ queryClient.getQueryState(queryKey)

Codemod

To make the remove overloads migration easier, v5 comes with a codemod.

The codemod is a best efforts attempt to help you migrate the breaking change. Please review the generated code thoroughly! Also, there are edge cases that cannot be found by the code mod, so please keep an eye on the log output.

If you want to run it against .js or .jsx files, please use the command below:

bash
npx jscodeshift@latest ./path/to/src/ \
--extensions=js,jsx \
--transform=./node_modules/@tanstack/react-query/build/codemods/src/v5/remove-overloads/remove-overloads.js

If you want to run it against .ts or .tsx files, please use the command below:

bash
npx jscodeshift@latest ./path/to/src/ \
--extensions=ts,tsx \
--parser=tsx \
--transform=./node_modules/@tanstack/react-query/build/codemods/src/v5/remove-overloads/remove-overloads.js

Please note in the case of TypeScript you need to use tsx as the parser; otherwise, the codemod won't be applied properly!

Note: Applying the codemod might break your code formatting, so please don't forget to run prettier and/or eslint after you've applied the codemod!

A few notes about how codemod works:

  • Generally, we're looking for the lucky case, when the first parameter is an object expression and contains the "queryKey" or "mutationKey" property (depending on which hook/method call is being transformed). If this is the case, your code already matches the new signature, so the codemod won't touch it. 🎉
  • If the condition above is not fulfilled, then the codemod will check whether the first parameter is an array expression or an identifier that references an array expression. If this is the case, the codemod will put it into an object expression, then it will be the first parameter.
  • If object parameters can be inferred, the codemod will attempt to copy the already existing properties to the newly created one.
  • If the codemod cannot infer the usage, then it will leave a message on the console. The message contains the file name and the line number of the usage. In this case, you need to do the migration manually.
  • If the transformation results in an error, you will also see a message on the console. This message will notify you something unexpected happened, please do the migration manually.

Callbacks on useQuery (and QueryObserver) have been removed

onSuccess, onError and onSettled have been removed from Queries. They haven't been touched for Mutations. Please see this RFC for motivations behind this change and what to do instead.

The refetchInterval callback function only gets query passed

This streamlines how callbacks are invoked (the refetchOnWindowFocus, refetchOnMount and refetchOnReconnect callbacks all only get the query passed as well), and it fixes some typing issues when callbacks get data transformed by select.

diff
- refetchInterval: number | false | ((data: TData | undefined, query: Query) => number | false | undefined)
+ refetchInterval: number | false | ((query: Query) => number | false | undefined)

You can still access data with query.state.data, however, it will not be data that has been transformed by select. If you need to access the transformed data, you can call the transformation again on query.state.data.

The remove method has been removed from useQuery

Previously, remove method used to remove the query from the queryCache without informing observers about it. It was best used to remove data imperatively that is no longer needed, e.g. when logging a user out.

But It doesn't make much sense to do this while a query is still active, because it will just trigger a hard loading state with the next re-render.

if you still need to remove a query, you can use queryClient.removeQueries({queryKey: key})

diff
const queryClient = useQueryClient();
const query = useQuery({ queryKey, queryFn });
- query.remove()
+ queryClient.removeQueries({ queryKey })

The minimum required TypeScript version is now 4.7

Mainly because an important fix was shipped around type inference. Please see this TypeScript issue for more information.

The isDataEqual option has been removed from useQuery

Previously, This function was used to indicate whether to use previous data (true) or new data (false) as a resolved data for the query.

You can achieve the same functionality by passing a function to structuralSharing instead:

diff
import { replaceEqualDeep } from '@tanstack/react-query'
- isDataEqual: (oldData, newData) => customCheck(oldData, newData)
+ structuralSharing: (oldData, newData) => customCheck(oldData, newData) ? oldData : replaceEqualDeep(oldData, newData)

The deprecated custom logger has been removed

Custom loggers were already deprecated in 4 and have been removed in this version. Logging only had an effect in development mode, where passing a custom logger is not necessary.

Supported Browsers

We have updated our browserslist to produce a more modern, performant and smaller bundle. You can read about the requirements here.

Private class fields and methods

TanStack Query has always had private fields and methods on classes, but they weren't really private - they were just private in TypeScript. We now use ECMAScript Private class features, which means those fields are now truly private and can't be accessed from the outside at runtime.

Rename cacheTime to gcTime

Almost everyone gets cacheTime wrong. It sounds like "the amount of time that data is cached for", but that is not correct.

cacheTime does nothing as long as a query is still in used. It only kicks in as soon as the query becomes unused. After the time has passed, data will be "garbage collected" to avoid the cache from growing.

gc is referring to "garbage collect" time. It's a bit more technical, but also a quite well known abbreviation in computer science.

diff
const MINUTE = 1000 * 60;
const queryClient = new QueryClient({
defaultOptions: {
queries: {
- cacheTime: 10 * MINUTE,
+ gcTime: 10 * MINUTE,
},
},
})

The useErrorBoundary option has been renamed to throwOnError

To make the useErrorBoundary option more framework-agnostic and avoid confusion with the established React function prefix "use" for hooks and the "ErrorBoundary" component name, it has been renamed to throwOnError to more accurately reflect its functionality.

TypeScript: Error is now the default type for errors instead of unknown

Even though in JavaScript, you can throw anything (which makes unknown the most correct type), almost always, Errors (or subclasses of Error) are thrown. This change makes it easier to work with the error field in TypeScript for most cases.

If you want to throw something that isn't an Error, you'll now have to set the generic for yourself:

ts
useQuery<number, string>({
queryKey: ['some-query'],
queryFn: async () => {
if (Math.random() > 0.5) {
throw 'some error'
}
return 42
},
})

For a way to set a different kind of Error globally, see the TypeScript Guide.

eslint prefer-query-object-syntax rule is removed

Since the only supported syntax now is the object syntax, this rule is no longer needed

Removed keepPreviousData in favor of placeholderData identity function

We have removed the keepPreviousData option and isPreviousData flag as they were doing mostly the same thing as placeholderData and isPlaceholderData flag.

To achieve the same functionality as keepPreviousData, we have added previous query data as an argument to placeholderData which accepts an identity function. Therefore you just need to provide an identity function to placeholderData or use the included keepPreviousData function from Tanstack Query.

A note here is that useQueries would not receive previousData in the placeholderData function as argument. This is due to a dynamic nature of queries passed in the array, which may lead to a different shape of result from placeholder and queryFn.

diff
import {
useQuery,
+ keepPreviousData
} from "@tanstack/react-query";
const {
data,
- isPreviousData,
+ isPlaceholderData,
} = useQuery({
queryKey,
queryFn,
- keepPreviousData: true,
+ placeholderData: keepPreviousData
});

An identity function, in the context of Tanstack Query, refers to a function that always returns its provided argument (i.e. data) unchanged.

ts
useQuery({
queryKey,
queryFn,
placeholderData: (previousData, previousQuery) => previousData, // identity function with the same behaviour as `keepPreviousData`
})

There are some caveats to this change however, which you must be aware of:

  • placeholderData will always put you into success state, while keepPreviousData gave you the status of the previous query. That status could be error if we have data fetched successfully and then got a background refetch error. However, the error itself was not shared, so we decided to stick with behavior of placeholderData.

  • keepPreviousData gave you the dataUpdatedAt timestamp of the previous data, while with placeholderData, dataUpdatedAt will stay at 0. This might be annoying if you want to show that timestamp continuously on screen. However you might get around it with useEffect.

    ts
    const [updatedAt, setUpdatedAt] = useState(0)
    const { data, dataUpdatedAt } = useQuery({
    queryKey: ['projects', page],
    queryFn: () => fetchProjects(page),
    })
    useEffect(() => {
    if (dataUpdatedAt > updatedAt) {
    setUpdatedAt(dataUpdatedAt)
    }
    }, [dataUpdatedAt])

Window focus refetching no longer listens to the focus event

The visibilitychange event is used exclusively now. This is possible because we only support browsers that support the visibilitychange event. This fixes a bunch of issues as listed here.

Network status no longer relies on the navigator.onLine property

navigator.onLine doesn't work well in Chromium based browsers. There are a lot of issues around false negatives, which lead to Queries being wrongfully marked as offline.

To circumvent this, we now always start with online: true and only listen to online and offline events to update the status.

This should reduce the likelihood of false negatives, however, it might mean false positives for offline apps that load via serviceWorkers, which can work even without an internet connection.

Removed custom context prop in favor of custom queryClient instance

In v4, we introduced the possibility to pass a custom context to all react-query hooks. This allowed for proper isolation when using MicroFrontends.

However, context is a react-only feature. All that context does is give us access to the queryClient. We could achieve the same isolation by allowing to pass in a custom queryClient directly. This in turn will enable other frameworks to have the same functionality in a framework-agnostic way.

diff
import { queryClient } from './my-client'
const { data } = useQuery(
{
queryKey: ['users', id],
queryFn: () => fetch(...),
- context: customContext
},
+ queryClient,
)

Removed refetchPage in favor of maxPages

In v4, we introduced the possibility to define the pages to refetch for infinite queries with the refetchPage function.

However, refetching all pages might lead to UI inconsistencies. Also, this option is available on e.g. queryClient.refetchQueries, but it only does something for infinite queries, not "normal" queries.

The v5 includes a new maxPages option for infinite queries to limit the number of pages to store in the query data and to refetch. This new feature handles the use cases initially identified for the refetchPage page feature without the related issues.

New dehydrate API

The options you can pass to dehydrate have been simplified. Queries and Mutations are always dehydrated (according to the default function implementation). To change this behaviour, instead of using the removed boolean options dehydrateMutations and dehydrateQueries you can implement the function equivalents shouldDehydrateQuery or shouldDehydrateMutation instead. To get the old behaviour of not hydrating queries/mutations at all, pass in () => false.

diff
- dehydrateMutations?: boolean
- dehydrateQueries?: boolean

Infinite queries now need a initialPageParam

Previously, we've passed undefined to the queryFn as pageParam, and you could assign a default value to the pageParam parameter in the queryFn function signature. This had the drawback of storing undefined in the queryCache, which is not serializable.

Instead, you now have to pass an explicit initialPageParam to the infinite query options. This will be used as the pageParam for the first page:

diff
useInfiniteQuery({
queryKey,
- queryFn: ({ pageParam = 0 }) => fetchSomething(pageParam),
+ queryFn: ({ pageParam }) => fetchSomething(pageParam),
+ initialPageParam: 0,
getNextPageParam: (lastPage) => lastPage.next,
})

Manual mode for infinite queries has been removed

Previously, we've allowed to overwrite the pageParams that would be returned from getNextPageParam or getPreviousPageParam by passing a pageParam value directly to fetchNextPage or fetchPreviousPage. This feature didn't work at all with refetches and wasn't widely known or used. This also means that getNextPageParam is now required for infinite queries.

Returning null from getNextPageParam or getPreviousPageParam now indicates that there is no further page available

In v4, you needed to explicitly return undefined to indicate that there is no further page available. We've widened this check to include null.

No retries on the server

On the server, retry now defaults to 0 instead of 3. For prefetching, we have always defaulted to 0 retries, but since queries that have suspense enabled can now execute directly on the server as well (since React18), we have to make sure that we don't retry on the server at all.

status: loading has been changed to status: pending and isLoading has been changed to isPending and isInitialLoading has now been renamed to isLoading

The loading status has been renamed to pending, and similarly the derived isLoading flag has been renamed to isPending.

For mutations as well the status has been changed from loading to pending and the isLoading flag has been changed to isPending.

Lastly, a new derived isLoading flag has been added to the queries that is implemented as isPending && isFetching. This means that isLoading and isInitialLoading have the same thing, but isInitialLoading is deprecated now and will be removed in the next major version.

To understand the reasoning behing this change checkout the v5 roadmap discussion.

hashQueryKey has been renamed to hashKey

because it also hashes mutation keys and can be used inside the predicate functions of useIsMutating and useMutationState, which gets mutations passed.

The minimum required React version is now 18.0

React Query v5 requires React 18.0 or later. This is because we are using the new useSyncExternalStore hook, which is only available in React 18.0 and later. Previously, we have been using the shim provided by React.

The contextSharing prop has been removed from QueryClientProvider

You could previously use the contextSharing property to share the first (and at least one) instance of the query client context across the window. This ensured that if TanStack Query was used across different bundles or microfrontends then they will all use the same instance of the context, regardless of module scoping.

However, isolation is often preferred for microfrontends. In v4 the option to pass a custom context to the QueryClientProvider was added, which allows exactly this. If you wish to use the same query client across multiple packages of an application, you can create a QueryClient in your application and then let the bundles share this through the context property of the QueryClientProvider.

No longer using unstable_batchedUpdates as the batching function in React and React Native

Since the function unstable_batchedUpdates is noop in React 18, it will no longer be automatically set as the batching function in react-query.

If your framework supports a custom batching function, you can let TanStack Query know about it by calling notifyManager.setBatchNotifyFunction.

For example, this is how the batch function is set in solid-query:

ts
import { notifyManager } from '@tanstack/query-core'
import { batch } from 'solid-js'
notifyManager.setBatchNotifyFunction(batch)

Hydration API changes

To better support concurrent features and transitions we've made some changes to the hydration APIs. The Hydrate component has been renamed to HydrationBoundary and the useHydrate hook has been removed.

The HydrationBoundary no longer hydrates mutations, only queries. To hydrate mutations, use the low level hydrate API or the persistQueryClient plugin.

Finally, as a technical detail, the timing for when queries are hydrated have changed slightly. New queries are still hydrated in the render phase so that SSR works as usual, but any queries that already exist in the cache are now hydrated in an effect instead (as long as their data is fresher than what is in the cache). If you are hydrating just once at the start of your application as is common, this wont affect you, but if you are using Server Components and pass down fresh data for hydration on a page navigation, you might notice a flash of the old data before the page immediately rerenders.

This last change is technically a breaking one, and was made so we don't prematurely update content on the existing page before a page transition has been fully committed. No action is required on your part.

diff
- import { Hydrate } from '@tanstack/react-query'
+ import { HydrationBoundary } from '@tanstack/react-query'
- <Hydrate state={dehydratedState}>
+ <HydrationBoundary state={dehydratedState}>
<App />
- </Hydrate>
+ </HydrationBoundary>

New Features 🚀

v5 also comes with new features:

Simplified optimistic updates

We have a new, simplified way to perform optimistic updates by leveraging the returned variables from useMutation:

tsx
const queryInfo = useTodos()
const addTodoMutation = useMutation({
mutationFn: (newTodo: string) => axios.post('/api/data', { text: newTodo }),
onSettled: () => queryClient.invalidateQueries({ queryKey: ['todos'] }),
})
if (queryInfo.data) {
return (
<ul>
{queryInfo.data.items.map((todo) => (
<li key={todo.id}>{todo.text}</li>
))}
{addTodoMutation.isPending && (
<li key={String(addTodoMutation.submittedAt)} style={{ opacity: 0.5 }}>
{addTodoMutation.variables}
</li>
)}
</ul>
)
}

Here, we are only changing how the UI looks when the mutation is running instead of writing data directly to the cache. This works best if we only have one place where we need to show the optimistic update. For more details, have a look at the optimistic updates documentation.

Limited, Infinite Queries with new maxPages option

Infinite queries are great when infinite scroll or pagination are needed. However, the more pages you fetch, the more memory you consume, and this also slows down the query refetching process as all the pages are sequentially refetched.

Version 5 has a new maxPages option for infinite queries, which allows developers to limit the number of pages that are stored in the query data and subsequently refetched. You can adjust the maxPages value according to the UX and refetching performance you want to deliver.

Note that the infinite list must be bi-directional, which requires both getNextPageParam and getPreviousPageParam to be defined.

Infinite Queries can prefetch multiple pages

Infinite Queries can be prefetched like regular Queries. Per default, only the first page of the Query will be prefetched and will be stored under the given QueryKey. If you want to prefetch more than one page, you can use the pages option. Read the prefetching guide for more information.

New combine option for useQueries

See the useQueries docs for more details.

Experimental fine grained storage persister

See the experimental_createPersister docs for more details.

Typesafe way to create Query Options

See the TypeScript docs for more details.

new hooks for suspense

With v5, suspense for data fetching finally becomes "stable". We've added dedicated useSuspenseQuery, useSuspenseInfiniteQuery and useSuspenseQueries hooks. With these hooks, data will never be potentially undefined on type level:

js
const { data: post } = useSuspenseQuery({
// ^? const post: Post
queryKey: ['post', postId],
queryFn: () => fetchPost(postId),
})

The experimental suspense: boolean flag on the query hooks has been removed.

You can read more about them in the suspense docs.

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